Production deployment (recommendations) #

Lifecycle #

Application lifecycle #

For applications (consider application name is autotest)

  • Pack app for deployment (in the application folder)
cd autotest
ub-pack # this creates `/tmp/ubapp-autotest#x.y.z.tar.gz
  • Copy resulting tarball to the server and run deploy
sudo -u unitybase ub-deploy ubapp-autotest#x.y.z.tar.gz
  • Edit (create) environment variables file in /var/opt/unitybase/autotest/ubConfig.env.

cd /opt/unitybase/apps/autotest and run ub -T to see variables list

  • If this is first time setup of application - run initialization
sudo -u unitybase ub-app-init autotest
sudo systemctl enable --now unitybase@autotest
  • If this is upgrade
sudo systemctl stop unitybase@autotest
sudo -u unitybase ub-app-upgrade --app autotest 
sudo systemctl start unitybase@autotest

Product lifecycle #

For products (consider product name is docflow)

  • Pack product for deployment (in the application folder)
cd docflow
ub-pack # this creates `/tmp/ubproduct-docflow#x.y.z.tar.gz
  • Copy resulting tarball to the server and run deploy
sudo -u unitybase ub-deploy ubproduct-docflow#x.y.z.tar.gz
  • If this is a first time product setup (there is no application for this product on this server)

    • create new app
    sudo -u unitybase ub-app-new -p docflow -a docflow-cust1
    • edit application environment variables file in /var/opt/unitybase/docflow-cust1/ubConfig.env and run application initialization
    sudo -u unitybase ub-app-init cust1 # will create app docflow-cust1  
  • if this is an upgrade - all affected applications should be upgraded

sudo systemctl stop unitybase@docflow*
# for each app (docflow-cust1)
sudo -u unitybase ub-app-upgrade --app docflow-cust1
sudo -u unitybase ub-app-upgrade --app docflow-custN
sudo systemctl start unitybase@docflow*  

Prepare application/product for deployment #

In the application/product folder run a command


This command installs all application dependencies and creates an archive for future deployment.

since ub@5.20.5 application can perform additional actions before up-pack by adding a lifecycle hook into APP_FOLDER/lifecycle/

All files what must be excluded from archive should be noted in .npmignore. Also, ignored:

  • all files and folders starts with '.'
  • *.log
  • /logs, /stores, /localdb
  • ./inetpub/clientRequire folder

In case this is a product, set a

"config": {
 "ubapptype": "product"

in the package.json.

Application/product version is taken from "version" inside package.json and should be increased before packing to prevent deployment conflict in the future.

For testing purpose ub-pack can be executed with -m DEV parameter. In this case instead of npm i --production packing script uses yarn, so if workspaces is defined in the package.json then some dependencies are linked. In any case all linked dependencies are included into resulting archive as files (not as symlinks).

Deploy app/product #

Archive created by ub-pack can be deployed using command

sudo -u unitybase ub-deploy path/to/ubapp-appName#version.tar.gz

For applications (ubapp-*.tar.gz) deploy script archive previous app version, unpack a new app into /opt/unitybase/apps/$UB_APP and creates folder structure for application data in the /var/opt/unitybase/$UB_APP (if missing).

For products (ubproduct-*.tar.gz) deploy script archive previous product version and unpack a new product into /opt/unitybase/products/$UB_APP.

Folder structure #

      /unitybase            # applications data (localdb, stores, temporary logs)
        /shared             # data shared between all applications
            osplm.ini       # UB EE+ DSTU library settings 
            /certificates   # UB EE+ DSTU certificates storage 
                 CACertificates.p7b # UB EE+ root CA's certificates bundle 
        /crb-docflow        # crb.docflow data
            /_temp          # temp folder for mdb BLOB store
            /cmodels        # customer model (customer-specific addition for product developed by customer)
            /localdb        # local database files (SQLite3, SQL Server localdb etc.)  
            /stores         # BLOB stores
            ubConfig.env    # Environment variables for application instance
        /docs-adminui       # docs-adminui application data
     /unitybase             # local logs for develepnemt purpose; production logs are written to journald  
    /server                 # ub server (installed by rpm/deb. ub symlinked to `/usr/bin/ub`)
        ub                  # executable 
    /products               # products (should be installed by app developer)
    /apps                   # available applications (either products what configured for certain customer or stand-alone app)
        /crb-docflow        # product based application (in form customer-product)
            /inetpub        # content of this folder available using `/statics` endpoint
            /models         # vendor model (customer-specific addition for product developed by product owner)
            ubConfig.json   # application config - for products - symlynk to a product config `../../products/docflow/ubConfig.json`
       /docs-adminui        # stand-alone application (not based on any product)
                /req        # application specific model
            /node_modules   # application modules. For products this folder is placed in /products/productName
            ubConfig.json   # for stand-alone app not a symlynk but a file                           

  unitybase@.service        # UnityBase vendor unit. Do not edit it directly - see overriding topic below
/ubr/bin/ub                 # symbolic link to /opt/unitybase/server/ub   

User and group #

ub-server installation package creates user unitybase and group unitybase. This user is used to starts a unitybase@ services.

Also /opt/unitybase/apps is owned by unitybase user/group, so any member of unitybase group can create a new app.

Do not login using unitybase user! - instead create a user for each person who can manage UnityBase and add it into unitybase group:

# add user to a unitybase group
sudo usermod -a -G unitybase your-user-name
# set unitybase as a primary group for user - files and folders the user creates will be assigned to the primary group
sudo usermod -g unitybase your-user-name

Application as a service #

Product configuration #

In terms of UnityBase product is a set of models and customizations what can be used by many customers. The product examples is: DocFlow, Scriptum, df-bpm etc.

Products installed in the /opt/unitybase/products/productname folder as a superuser (root). Product folder write permission allowed only for root, other user can read it content.

Product owner should create an application config template ubConfig.json what uses environment variables for its variable parts. For a multi-database products we recommended wrapping a database section to #ifdef as such:

"connections": [
    { oracle config },
    { Postgres config },

See apps/autotest/ubConfig.json in ubjs project git repository.

During startup service sets following variables:

Variable name Value and explanation
UB_APP Part after @ in the service name (autotest for systemctl start unitybase@autotest)
UB_APPDATA /var/opt/unitybase/$UB_APP/ Note a trailing '/' - this allows to use path relative to cwd for development (when UB_APPDATA is not defined)
UB_APPHOME /opt/unitybase/apps/$UB_APP/

Additional variables can be added for application by placing it in the %UB_APPDATA%ubConfig.env. This file used as env file for service.

Product template should contain placeholders for application.domain.vendorModels and application.domain.customerModels:

"application": {
  "domain": {
    "models": [....],
    "vendorModels": "%UB_VMODELS%",
    "customerModels": "%UB_CMODELS%"     

This allows application to add a customer-specific behaviors to a product.

up-app-pack lifecycle script detect product by check config.ubapptype in package.json === 'product'.

Starting from UB@5.18.12 server sets a NODE_PATH variable to the real path of application config, so all modules in the product/node_modules folder are accessible for vendorModel using require('moduleName').

See application structure below for a list of folders for application data.

Tip for products developers #

During development customers specific models and test data usually placed in the same git repository as a product files:

     (config contains `"vendorModels": "%UB_VMODELS%"`)         

To start an application in debug mode for a certain customer (crb) using product template and Oracle as a database run ub as:

UB_DB_DRIVER=Oracle UB_VMODELS='crb:crb_bpm' ub -cd -dev

All variables can be exported from env file using

set -o allexport; . ubConfig-dev.env; set +o allexport
# set -o allexport; source ubConfig-dev.env; set +o allexport

Or via command line using -env

ub -env ./ubConfig-dev.env

We also recommend exporting an UB_ENV variable and put it to the PROMPT_COMMAND inside .bashrc to see a current environment (put a \e[0;35m\$UB_ENV\e[m in your .bashrc PROMPT_COMMAND=). For example:

PROMPT_COMMAND="__git_ps1 '\e[0;34m\$UB_ENV\e[m \w' '\\$ '"

Application #

In terms of UnityBase application is either a product what configured for a certain customer, or a "stand-alone" app - an application what not based on any product and used in single environment only.

Product based application examples are:

  • DocFlow for Customer#1: application based on DocFlow product with customizations for Customer#1
  • Scriptum for Customer#2: application based on Scriptum product with customizations for Customer#2

Stand-alone application examples are:

  • docs-adminui: AdminUI documentation project. Not based on a product since used on the website only
  • autotest: an autotest application for UnityBase

Both type of applications are placed in the sub-folders of /opt/unitybase/apps folder. Name of the sub-folder is a $UB_APP.

Main part of product-based applications (including node_modules and config template) are placed in the /products sub-folder and application data (vendorModels, customerModel, localdb, stores and .env file) - in the /apps sub-folder. Config is symlinked from products into apps.

Stand-alone application can place all its part into /apps.

Application folders structure #

Application with name appName place its code in /opt/unitybase/apps/appName (UB_APPHOME environment variable) and its data in /var/opt/unitybase/appName (UB_APPDATA environment variable):

    /inetpub        # content of this folder available using `/statics` endpoint
    /models         # customer models  
      /crb          # vendor model (customer-specific addition for product developed by product owner) 
    ubConfig.json   # application config - symlynk to a product config `../../products/docflow@2.1.4/ubConfigDocflow-tpl.json`
      /localdb        # local database files (SQLite3, SQL Server localdb etc.)
      /stores         # application BLOB stores
        /crbc         # customer model (customer-specific addition for product developed by customer)
      ubConfig.env    # Environment variables for application instance  

Product template can use additional environment variables. These variables should be defined in $UB_APPDATA/ubConfig.env.

Start application #

A command below starts autotest application and schedule it to start after OS reboot:

sudo systemctl enable --now unitybase@autotest

In fact this is combination of two command:

sudo systemctl enable unitybase@autotest # schedule application to start after boot
sudo systemctl start unitybase@autotest  # start application now

Vendor preset for unitybase@ service is configured to restart service on failure with 1 second delay between restarts. In case service restarts more when 5 times during 30 second it marked as "failed" and should be started manually (using systemstl start).

To force systemd to reset service startup failure counters use a command:

sudo systemctl reset-failed

Typical operations are:

  • start application
sudo systemctl start unitybase@YourAppName.service
  • stop application
sudo systemctl stop unitybase@YourAppName.service

Logs #

Setup logging #

# Create a log directory to allow journals to be stored on disk
sudo mkdir -p /var/log/journal
sudo systemd-tmpfiles --create --prefix /var/log/journal

For a systemd < 254 setup /etc/systemd/journald.conf as in /etc/systemd/journald@unitybase.conf

For a systemd >= 254 /etc/systemd/journald@unitybase.conf preset is used automatically.

Restart journald to apply new changes

systemctl force-reload systemd-journald

Logging performance #

Logs are written using UDP sockets. UDP/IP receive buffer default should be increased for better performance.

Check the current UDP/IP receive buffer default and limit by typing the following commands:

 sysctl net.core.rmem_max
 sysctl net.core.rmem_default

If the values are less than 26214400 bytes (25MB), you should add the following lines to the /etc/sysctl.conf file:


Changes to /etc/sysctl.conf do not take effect until a reboot. To update the values immediately, type the following commands as root:

 sysctl -w net.core.rmem_max=26214400
 sysctl -w net.core.rmem_default=26214400

Use logs #

# all logs for all UnityBase services since last boot
journalctl --boot -u unitybase*
# errors, warnings and notices starting from 9:00 for autotest app
journalctl --since 09:00 --until now -u unitybase@autotest -p notice
# export logs to LogView format
journalctl -u unitybase@autotest --no-hostname -o short-iso-precise --since today _COMM=ub > todaysLog.log
# follow logs 
journalctl -u unitybase* -f

File, exported to LogView'er format may contains a several start/stop parts. To split a file todaysLog.log into sessions use a command:

csplit todaysLog.log --prefix='todaysLog' --suffix-format='%02d.log' '/srvr  StartupPath/' '{*}'

Overriding a default application startup rules #

All services #

systemctl edit unitybase@.sevrice
systemctl revert unitybase@.sevrice
sudo systemctl daemon-reload

Or create a drop-in manually

mkdir /etc/systemd/system/unitybase@.service.d

and place there *.conf file with parameters what needs to be added / override. See systemd.unit for more information.

Certain my-app instance #

systemctl edit unitybase@my-app.sevrice

Metrics #

There is two metrics sources

/stat endpoint #

  • authorised user can send a GET request to /stat endpoint to obtain a metrics.
UB.connection.get('stat').then(v => console.debug(

The response example:

 "sessions_total": 1,
 "threads_total": 4,
 "incoming_bytes": 32873,
 "outcoming_bytes": 416432,
 "responses_total": [0, 0, 59, 2, 1, 0],
 "security_exception_count": 0,
 "js_gc_count": 92,
 "js_memory_bytes": 30593024,
 "http_perning_request_count": 0


Stat metric Value and explanation
sessions_total Total count of active user session
threads_total Worker thread count (threadPoolSize parameter in ubConfig)
incoming_bytes Bytes receive over HTTP
outcoming_bytes Bytes send over HTTP
responses_total Responses count for status codes 0XX(should be 0), 1XX, 2XX, 3XX, 4XX, 5XX. In example above there is 59 2XX responses
security_exception_count All security related exceptions count (including session expire errors)
js_gc_count Number of times (for all threads) GC has been invoked. Includes both major and minor GC
js_memory_bytes Amount of bytes allocated by the JS engines (all threads)
http_perning_request_count How many input tasks are currently waiting to be affected by thread pool (for server on Linux. For Windows always 0 - see below about HTTP service request queue

/metrics endpoint for Prometheus #

Starting from 5.18.21 UnityBase EE expose a various application metrics in Prometheus format. Feature is configured using metrics section of ubConfig.

/metrics endpoint is available without authorization. Access to endpoint is limited on the reverse proxy level using metrics.allowedFrom parameter in ubConfig. Default is deny for all subnet masks.

For Linux server Prometheus metrics uses histograms whenever it makes sense, so per-endpoint (for HTTP), per-thread (for JS GC) and per-entity statistics are available.

IMPORTANT For Linux with non-english locale (not recommended) LC_NUMERIC=C environment variable should be sets for UnityBase server

curl http://localhost:8881/metrics

A truncated output example (with method profile enabled):

# HELP http_request_duration_seconds HTTP request duration histogram
# TYPE http_request_duration_seconds histogram
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="0,010000"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="0,050000"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="0,200000"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="0,500000"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="1,000000"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="3,000000"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="10,000000"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX",le="+Inf"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds_count{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX"} 2,000000
http_request_duration_seconds_sum{endpoint="getAppInfo",status="3XX"} 0,000653
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="0,010000"} 6,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="0,050000"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="0,200000"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="0,500000"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="1,000000"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="3,000000"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="10,000000"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX",le="+Inf"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds_count{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX"} 7,000000
http_request_duration_seconds_sum{endpoint="ubql",status="2XX"} 0,039072

# HELP unitybase_method_duration_seconds UnityBase entity method duration histogram
# TYPE unitybase_method_duration_seconds histogram
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="0,010000"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="0,050000"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="0,200000"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="0,500000"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="1,000000"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="3,000000"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="10,000000"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_user",method="select",le="+Inf"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds_count{entity="uba_user",method="select"} 5,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds_sum{entity="uba_user",method="select"} 0,015004
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="0,010000"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="0,050000"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="0,200000"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="0,500000"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="1,000000"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="3,000000"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="10,000000"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds{entity="uba_role",method="select",le="+Inf"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds_count{entity="uba_role",method="select"} 1,000000
unitybase_method_duration_seconds_sum{entity="uba_role",method="select"} 0,000396

# HELP unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds External HTTP service request duration histogram
# TYPE unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds histogram
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="0.01"} 0
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="0.05"} 0
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="0.2"} 0
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="0.5"} 7
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="1.0"} 14
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="3.0"} 14
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="10.0"} 14
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds{uri="",status="2XX",le="+Inf"} 14
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds_count{uri="",status="2XX"} 14
unitybase_httpext_duration_seconds_sum{uri="",status="2XX"} 6.854476

# HELP unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds File system operation duration histogram
# TYPE unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds histogram
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="0.01"} 4
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="0.05"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="0.2"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="0.5"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="1.0"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="3.0"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="10.0"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds{path="simple",operation="persist",le="+Inf"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds_count{path="simple",operation="persist"} 5
unitybase_fs_operation_duration_seconds_sum{path="simple",operation="persist"} 0.037999999999999999

# HELP process_max_fds Maximum number of open file descriptors.
# TYPE process_max_fds gauge
process_max_fds 1024,000000

# HELP process_virtual_memory_max_bytes Maximum amount of virtual memory available in bytes.
# TYPE process_virtual_memory_max_bytes gauge
process_virtual_memory_max_bytes -1,000000

# HELP process_cpu_seconds_total Total user and system CPU time spent in seconds.
# TYPE process_cpu_seconds_total gauge
process_cpu_seconds_total 0,000000

# HELP process_virtual_memory_bytes Virtual memory size in bytes.
# TYPE process_virtual_memory_bytes gauge
process_virtual_memory_bytes 1619578880,000000

# HELP process_start_time_seconds Start time of the process since unix epoch in seconds.
# TYPE process_start_time_seconds gauge
process_start_time_seconds 449016,000000

# HELP process_open_fds Number of open file descriptors.
# TYPE process_open_fds gauge
process_open_fds 18,000000

# HELP unitybase_sessions_total Logged in user sessions count
# TYPE unitybase_sessions_total gauge
unitybase_sessions_total 1,000000

# HELP unitybase_threads_total Thread pool size
# TYPE unitybase_threads_total gauge
unitybase_threads_total 4,000000

# HELP unitybase_incoming_bytes_total Total bytes incoming
# TYPE unitybase_incoming_bytes_total gauge
unitybase_incoming_bytes_total 35086,000000

# HELP unitybase_outcoming_bytes_total Total bytes outcoming
# TYPE unitybase_outcoming_bytes_total gauge
unitybase_outcoming_bytes_total 134531,000000

# HELP unitybase_security_exception_total Total count of security violation (incliding timed out sessions)
# TYPE unitybase_security_exception_total gauge
unitybase_security_exception_total 0,000000

# HELP http_pendng_request_count How many input tasks are currently waiting to be affected by thread pool
# TYPE http_pendng_request_count gauge
http_pendng_request_count 0,000000

# HELP unitybase_js_gc_count Number of times GC has been invoked. Includes both major and minor GC
# TYPE unitybase_js_gc_count gauge
unitybase_js_gc_count{thread="th01"} 26,000000
unitybase_js_gc_count{thread="th02"} 22,000000
unitybase_js_gc_count{thread="th03"} 22,000000
unitybase_js_gc_count{thread="th04"} 22,000000

# HELP unitybase_js_bytes Amount of bytes allocated by the JS engine
# TYPE unitybase_js_bytes gauge
unitybase_js_bytes{thread="th01"} 9555968,000000
unitybase_js_bytes{thread="th02"} 7000064,000000
unitybase_js_bytes{thread="th03"} 7020544,000000
unitybase_js_bytes{thread="th04"} 6991872,000000

Windows performance counter metrics #

Under Windows HTTP level metrics are exposed as HTTP.sys specific performance counter

Most important is HTTP Service Request Queues

If queue length is too long (200 and more) either a thread pool should be increased or profile and tune application logic.