UnityBase comes with build-in scheduler - the mechanism for scheduling repetitive tasks. This tutorial is a step-by-step instruction of setting up the schedulers in your application.

Pre-requirements

Schedulers are implemented by UBQ (UnityBase Queue) model. To enable the schedulers in your application the UBQ model must be included into the models section of application config:

    	"application": {
                ......
                "domain": {
                    "models": [
                        ...,
                        {
                            "name": "UBQ",
                            "path": "%UB_HOME%\\models\\UBQ"
                        },
                        ...
                    ]
                },
   		}

Schedulers are enabled by default, you can explicitly disable schedulers (for example for a test purpose), by adding a

"schedulers": {"enabled": false}

section to the application config.

UB authorization schema must be enabled in the security.authenticationMethods application config.

Adding tasks

Scheduler tasks definition can be stored in the root of the model folders in the file with name _schedulers.json. This scheduler definition JSON schema describes the file format.

Define an execution time

The cron field is a UNIX-style crontab entry. The syntax in the file is:

  ┌───────────── sec (0 - 59)
  │ ┌───────────── min (0 - 59)
  │ │ ┌────────────── hour (0 - 23)
  │ │ │ ┌─────────────── day of month (1 - 31)
  │ │ │ │ ┌──────────────── month (1 - 12)
  │ │ │ │ │ ┌───────────────── day of week (0 - 6) (0 to 6 are Sunday to Saturday)
  │ │ │ │ │ │
  │ │ │ │ │ │
  │ │ │ │ │ │
  * * * * * *

Some samples:

"cron": "0 0 */1 * * *" // execute a job every hour in 0 min 0 sec

"cron": "0 0 */3 * * *" // execute a job every three hour in 0 min 0 sec

"cron": "0 15 1 * * 1" // execute a job every monday in 1:15.00 after midnight

"cron": "0 1 0 5 4 *" // execute a job every year on 5 april at 0:1.00

"cron": "0 10 6 1 * *" // execute a job every 1 day of month at 6:10.00

Define a task to be executed

The command attribute defines a path to a function to be executed in the HTTP worker context. For example:

"command": "UB.UBQ.FTSReindexFromQueue"

will execute a function FTSReindexFromQueue from a namespace UB.UBQ.

The tasks are executed from a user name passe to a "runAs" parameter. Users are logged into the system using UB authorization.

Alternative way is to pass a module parameter, what resolved to module accessible via require and exports a function. For example:

"module": '@unitybase/myModule/schedTask'

and in unitybase/myModule/schedTask.js

module exports = function() {...}

Overriding the existing schedulers

Each model can define his own schedulers. It is possible to define the job with the same name in the different models. In this case job definition will be overridden in the same order how models defined in the application config. Instead of modifying job definition from a model you do not own, it is better to define the job with the same name in your model and override the original job.

For example, to disable the FTSReindexFromQueue job (defined in the UBQ model), place the following job definition inside your model _schedulers.json:

{
 	"name": "FTSReindexFromQueue",
    "schedulingCondition": "false"
}

Tracking the schedulers

To see the current scheduler definitions from the AdminUI you can select a data from a ubq_scheduler virtual entity

UB.Repository('ubq_scheduler').attrs('*').select()

The shortcut for a ubq_scheduler is placed in the AdminUI Administration desktop -> Queue->Schedulers.

Every time scheduler is executed it will place the execution result into the ubq_runstat entity. If function from command throw an error, record with ubq_runstat.resultError === 1 will be added and exception message is placed into the ubq_runstat.resultErrorMsg. In case of successful job execution the record with ubq_runstat.resultError === 0 will be added and if function from command returns string message it will be placed into the ubq_runstat.logText.

To disable logging of the successful job execution (for example to save a database tablespace) you can set a "logSuccessful": false in the job definition.

Example

The task below will:

  • execute an update of a Full Text Search index every minute - "cron": "0 */1 * * * *").
  • not log a successful task execution to minimize a ubq_runstat table row count - "logSuccessful": false
  • only one FTSReindexFromQueue task can be performed at the same time - "singleton": true
  • not scheduled in case asynchronous FTS operations are disabled in the application configuration schedulingCondition.

Content of a models/UBQ/_schedulers.json file:

[{
    "name": "FTSReindexFromQueue",
    "schedulingCondition": "App.serverConfig.application.fts && App.serverConfig.application.fts.enabled && App.serverConfig.application.fts.async",
    "cron": "0 */1 * * * *",
    "description": "In case async FTS is enabled in server config will call a fts reindex for a queued items (ubq_messages.code = 'ASYNCFTS') every minute",
    "command": "UB.UBQ.FTSReindexFromQueue",
    "singleton": true,
    "runAs": "admin",
    "logSuccessful": false
}, {
    /*other tasks can be here */
}]

Implementation details

Schedulers implementation is a good example of using some advanced techniques, such as:

  • async endpoint - see {@tutorial delayed_operations}
  • application global cache {@link App.globalCacheGet}
  • asynchronous process - {@link worker}
  • manually database transaction commit {@link App.dbCommit} / rollback {@link App.dbRollback}
  • virtual entities

Implementation consists of two logical blocks.

Scheduler controller

Scheduler controller is a {@link worker} created during server startup. The task of worker is to read a cron jobs from a ubq_scheduler entity, create an in-memory crontab using node-cron module and send a async HTTP request to rest/ubq_messages/executeSchedulerTask endpoint in accordance with the schedule.

Requests are sent using {@link SyncConnection} with a credential of a user, defined in the "runAs" scheduler parameter and with UB authentication schema.

For emulation of a setTimeout function {@link WindowTimer} module is used.

All initialization is performed in the models/UBQ/ubq_schedulerInitialization.js

Scheduler executor

Requests from the scheduler controller come to a random HTTP worker. Since requests are async, HTTP worker immediately answers "202 Accepted" to the scheduler controller and then execute a ubq_messages.executeSchedulerTask method.

To avoid a remote code execution ubq_messages.executeSchedulerTask checks the request which came from the one of the local server IP's. If not - throw the error.

In case "singleton": true (default) is defined for a job (only one job of the same name can be performed at the same time), endpoint check a App.globalCacheGet(taskName) is not set and if not - set it to 1. If job with the same name is already running, then {@link App.globalCacheGet} return a '1' and executeSchedulerTask is terminated.

executeSchedulerTask method checks if the string passed to a command can be resolved into a function, and if so - executes a function without any parameters. In case command parameter is empty and module is passed - will require a module and execute it's default export as a function without parameters. Then commits (if no errors) or rollbacks ( if errors) all active databases transactions. Almost every time developer does not need to handle the transaction manually, but in this case we need to put a log entry to a ubq_runstat even in case job is failed and the main database transactions are rollbacked. So we commit/rollback the possible transactions manually, then insert a row to a ubq_runstat, and after this server will commit a ubq_runstat transaction as usual.